tacca chantrieri pollination

We used the Newton Raphson iteration option to find the maximum‐likelihood estimate of the selfing rate and parental inbreeding coefficient. B, Tacca chantrieri manifests many floral traits corresponding to fly pollination, yet it has a high selfing rate, likely corresponding to delayed selfing, when the flower inverts and the pollen spills onto the stigma (photo courtesy of Q.-J. Tacca wilsonii Distribution and habitat: Tacca chantrieri grow wild in the tropical forest from the regions of West Africa and Southeast Asia, where they can get as tall as 90cm (35 inch). Tacca species have become increasingly popular in the horticultural trade because of their bizarre reproductive morphology involving cymose umbellate inflorescences subtended by large conspicuous bracts, and many long, whisker‐like filiform bracteoles. Wiley has partnerships with many of the world’s leading societies and publishes over 1,500 peer-reviewed journals and 1,500+ new books annually in print and online, as well as databases, major reference works and laboratory protocols in STMS subjects. in two showy species, Tacca integrifolia Ker Gawl. We assigned visitors to one of two groups (visitors and pollinators), based on their behavior and likelihood of mediating pollination. The morphology of flowers and inflorescences. This item is part of a JSTOR Collection. Tacca chantrieri Andre or bat flower is a flowering plant from the family of Taccaceae (Fu and Jin, 1992). The only pollinator we observed was Trigona, a ubiquitous pollen‐collecting tropical bee that visits many species opportunistically (Roubik, 1989) and was seen visiting flowers of T. chantrieri at one of our field sites. Pollinator visitation was infrequent and bagged flowers set abundant seed. Similar analysis of seed : ovule ratio indicated no evidence of a population effect but a significant effect of pollination treatment and population × treatment interaction (two‐way ANOVA on seed set, F3,92 = 2.69, P = 0.05, population, F1,92 = 0.40, P = 0.528 NS, pollination treatment F1,92 = 4.43, P = 0.038 and population × pollination treatment interaction F1,92 = 3.90, P = 0.05). Selfing rates estimated in four populations using allozyme markers averaged 0.86 (range 0.76-0.94), thus corroborating this inference. Evolutionary Assurance As expected, based on these mating patterns, measurements of the parental inbreeding coefficients (F) indicate that the parental generation is significantly inbred (Table 2). It is unlikely that the syndrome is maintained simply to attract flies for the purpose of facilitated intra‐ and interfloral selfing. Mixed Mating It flowers in spring time. A geographical context for the evolution of plant reproductive systems. We investigated pollination and mating in Tacca chantrieri populations from SW China to evaluate this assumption. Inbreeding depression and its evolutionary consequences. Therefore, it is hard to imagine how the bracts and bracteoles of T. chantrieri might be important in the dispersal of seeds. Tacca, a genus of tropical herbs, possesses near black flowers, conspicuous involucral bracts and whisker‐like filiform bracteoles. Its beautiful inflorescence complete with long purplish filaments 12in long forming a flowing forked tail. Li sp. 3, p. 517-524. Tacca chantrieri is a perennial plant belongs to Taccaceae family that has the potential to be marketed as an ornamental plant due to its unique shape and dark color inflorescence. The distribution of Tacca chantrieri (from the website of the Missouri Botanical Garden, www.mobot.org) and the locations of populations investigated in this study in South Yunnan province, China, Reproductive biology of Tacca chantrieri. Our failure to observe fly pollination in T. chantrieri is unlikely to be the result of a rarity of flies in the vicinity of the populations we investigated. Dang & Vuong (Taccaceae), a new species from southern Vietnam. & Li, D. Z. Tacca, a genus of tropical herbs, possesses near black flowers, conspicuous involucral bracts and whisker‐like filiform bracteoles. Zhang, Ling et al. These flowers are somewhat bat-shaped, are up to 12 inches across, and have long 'whiskers' that can grow up to 28 inches. Stevenson (2004) also suggested that the dark‐colored flowers and large bracts were likely to be associated with fly pollination (and see Endress, 1995). Two days prior to anthesis, the flowers were emasculated to prevent prior self‐pollination. Despite the presence of numerous potential pollinators, only a handful of small, stingless bees paid any attention to these obvious floral cues. Tacca chantrieri, or the black bat plant, grows from underground rhizomes; and produces large-green leaves and long-stemmed flowers. Also, we only compared maternal reproductive success (fruit and seed set) in the three treatments and not male fitness resulting from pollen dispersal between plants. The evolution of plant reproductive ecology in China. 1). More Information . Compralo Subito. Among the four populations of T. chantrieri examined in this study (Table 2), estimates of the population‐level maternal selfing rate (sm) based on three polymorphic allozyme loci averaged 0.86 (range 0.76–0.94). The second site was in a protected area of Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden (XTBG; 21°45′ N, 101°02′ E; 580 m a.s.l.) These traits are all reported in species of Tacca and have been interpreted in the context of the sapromyiophilous syndrome (Drenth, 1972; Saw, 1993). Fioritura: (Aprile – Agosto).Fiori di color viola-nero. China plant red data book—rare and endangered plants. However, the vertical orientation of bracts is unlikely to be an optimal orientation for light capture in shady environments, thus casting doubt on this explanation. Description This plant is slender with long stems and can reach heights of between 80 and 110 centimetres. Further investigations of pollination and mating in T. chantrieri are clearly desirable to assess whether low pollinator visitation and high selfing rates are a common feature in this species, and in other Tacca species with similar reproductive traits. However, under current ecological conditions in southwest China, the syndrome may have little utility, perhaps because of scarce pollinator service. At WEV, we observed occasional visits to plants by a few ants, spiders, and flies, but these visits were also not effective in pollination. We estimated selfing rates in each population based on polymorphism at three allozyme loci resolved by starch gel electrophoresis. Nome comune: pianta pipistrello o fiore del diavolo. Tacca chantrieri has extravagant floral displays and a high investment in reproductive structures that lead to the expectation that it is largely outcrossing (Drenth, 1972; Saw, 1993). We also transplanted individuals from natural populations around XTBG to a shady location at XTBG to observe flowering phenology in detail. [ 2 replies | ] Posted by OldGardener (So Cal - Zone 10b) on Jul 15, 2014 1:53 PM Tacca chantrieri. Visualization and interpretation of plant isozymes. Birds, particularly hummingbirds, honeyeaters and sunbirds also accomplish much pollination, especially of deep-throated flowers. Li, the Yunnan Provincial Natural Science Foundation grant 2003C0024Q, the Ten‐Thousand‐Species Project grant of XTBG to L. Zhang, and a Discovery Grant from NSERC Canada to S. C. H. Barrett. 2a, b). Despite the presence of numerous potential pollinators, only a handful of small, stingless bees paid any attention to these obvious floral cues. Our results indicate that despite considerable investment in extravagant display, populations of T. chantrieri are highly selfing. Elsewhere, Lamborn and Ollerton (2000) used floral manipulations to investigate the function of the dark central floret in inflorescences of Daucus carota (Apiaceae). The name bat flower was derived from the plant’s bractea shape that is similar to bats. These include the close proximity of anthers and stigmas within flowers, anther dehiscence prior to flower opening, and additional self‐pollination when flower stalks bend downwards on the second day of anthesis (delayed self‐pollination). This confirms that autonomous self‐pollination prior to flower opening produces a significant quantity of seed. Four months later when fruits were mature, we counted the fruit set and seed set (seed : ovule ratio) of inflorescences. This plant is distinctly tropical. This led the authors to suggest that most bat plants are self-pollinated. All Rights Reserved. By way of the simplest description, the Bat Flower … We investigated pollination and mating in Tacca chantrieri populations from SW China to evaluate this assumption. Apparently, this has not occurred in T. chantrieri despite mechanisms for autonomous selfing and the low pollen : ovule ratio of the species. Check out using a credit card or bank account with. Ancestral reconstruction of flower morphology and pollination systems in Schizanthus (Solanaceae). Plants are 50–100 cm tall with tubers or creeping rhizomes and alternate, elliptic, entire leaves. In Yunnan Province, SW China, the region in which our studies were conducted, the species flowers from April to July. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use. that is dominated by Tetrameles nudiflora (Datiscaceae) and Horsfieldia tetratepala (Myristicaceae). The main attraction of this plant is its flower, which is an umbel (a flat-topped inflorescence with numerous flower … They don't like to be root bound. We performed two pollination treatments on a single inflorescence of 20–26 randomly selected individuals of T. chantrieri at the WEV and XTBG populations to examine the capacity for autonomous self‐pollination and therefore the importance of insect visitors to pollination. This led the authors to suggest that most bat plants are self-pollinated. 3. Access supplemental materials and multimedia. We photographed all types of flower visitors, and voucher specimens of insects are preserved in the insect collections of XTBG. We made field observations and experiments at two locations over a 3‐yr period (2001–2003) in seasonal forests. 2f). patterns from pollination syndromes: The case of sapro-myophily in Tacca chantrieri (Taccaceae). Indeed, genetic analysis of different … Contrary to this expectation, populations were highly selfing. Our results indicate that despite considerable investment in extravagant display, populations of T. chantrieri are highly selfing. The seed set of inflorescences with bracts and bracteoles removed was not significantly different from unmanipulated inflorescences, suggesting that these structures play a limited role in pollinator attraction, at least at our study sites. The flower stem develops from the base of the plant, and it can be around 24 inches long. As a result, we have remarkably little direct evidence on the effectiveness of different pollinator groups in promoting cross‐fertilization, or whether some syndromes are more susceptible to self‐pollination than others. We consider next several hypotheses that may explain the association between the sapromyiophilous syndrome and high selfing rates in T. chantrieri. and Tacca chantrieri André, demonstrate a very high degree of geographical population stratification, consistent with a hypothesis of self-pollination (Zhang … We derived the standard errors of selfing rate estimates from the standard deviation of 1000 bootstrap values, using the seed family as the unit of resampling. We set up three treatments with 30 individuals per treatment using one randomly chosen inflorescence per plant. option. — Annals of Botany 98: 449–457. nova (Taccaceae) is described and illustrated from Yunnan province, China. Tacca, a genus of tropical herbs, possesses near black flowers, conspicuous involucral bracts and whisker-like filiform bracteoles. For example, in small‐flowered species of Araceae, Bromeliaceae, Cornaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Rubiaceae, showy petaloid bracts probably function in pollinator attraction by enhancing visual display (Weberling, 1992). Values for percentage fruit set (fruit : flower ratio) per inflorescence and percentage seed set (seed : ovule ratio) per fruit at WEV were 69.6 ± 19.9 (30.8–100, N = 20) and 56.0 ± 14.8 (23.2–75.0, N = 20), respectively. Tacca chantrieri is a widespread species that occurs in humid tropical regions of south-east Asia. 2005; Zhang 2006; Zhao and Zhang 2015). We used a haemocytometer to estimate pollen production per flower following methods in Dafni (1992). To date, very limited publication on T. chantrieri are available. A global test of the pollination syndrome hypothesis. Instead, our results indicate that populations of this species are predominantly selfing and that flowers have several traits that promote autonomous self‐pollination. Pipistrello NERO FIORE-tacca chantrieri-semi-quantitativi di selezione. If this is true, why does T. chantrieri maintain a suite of floral traits associated with sapromyiophily? All pictures are contributed by our community. . Seasonal variation in the mating system of a selfing annual with large floral displays. Plants are 50–100 cm tall with tubers or creeping rhizomes and alternate, elliptic, entire leaves. The aim of this research was to examine plant growth pattern and flower phenology of T. chantrieri from West Borneo, Indonesia, and … Pollination syndromes and floral specialization. (c) A cross‐section of the flower illustrating the close proximity of the stigma and anthers. Contrary to this expectation, populations were highly selfing. However, our finding of similar levels of seed set in bagged and open‐pollinated flowers at the XTBG population (although not at WEV) implies that most selfing probably arises by autonomous means. and is dominated by Pometia tomentosa (Sapindaceae). The leaves can be as long as 15 inches. Latin tacca, from the Indonesian name, taka. Carrion Ecology, Evolution, and Their Applications. Its pollination takes place through small mammals and rodents who eat its fruit. Temperatura ottimale: tra i 28°C e 29°C. Tacca chantrieri is an unusual plant in that it has black flowers. Pollen : ovule ratios averaged 49, a value expected in a highly selfing species. In cultivation, apparent self-pollination takes place in a certain percentage of plants. Other vertebrates, such as … - "Predicting mating patterns from pollination syndromes: the case of "sapromyiophily" in Tacca chantrieri (Taccaceae)." T. chantrieri, an endangered species (Fu and Jin 1992), Fig. To determine if changes in flower position promoted self‐pollination, we counted pollen grains on the stigma at three time periods: (1) 0630 hours, 4 h before flower opening; (2) 1030 hours, right after flower opening; (3) 2230 hours, 12 h after flower opening at which time flowers were pendant. This reduced the motility of the long filiform bracteoles, which, as proposed by Fægri and van der Pijl (1971), may serve in pollinator attraction. Finally, we estimated mating patterns (see later) in four populations occurring at the following locations: Bubeng dipterocarp forest (Shorea wangtianshunea, Dipterocarpaceae) in Mengla County (BB); Wild Elephant Valley in Jinghong County (WEV); Menglun nature reserve in Mengla County (ML); protected forest close to the Mengyang‐Menglun highway (MY), 43 km from Mengyang in Jinghong County (Fig. 1 ). A multi‐year study of factors affecting fruit production in Aristolochia paucinervis (Aristolochiaceae). These features have been assumed to function as a "deceit syndrome" in which reproductive structures resemble decaying organic material attracting flies that facilitate cross-pollination (sapromyiophily). 2. The association between high selfing rates and the sapromyiophilous syndrome in T. chantrieri may occur because the syndrome is a relict condition with no current functional significance. material attracting flies that facilitate cross-pollination (sapromyiophily). The evolution of plant reproductive systems: how often are transitions irreversible?. Temperatura minima: 12°C. Wiley has published the works of more than 450 Nobel laureates in all categories: Literature, Economics, Physiology or Medicine, Physics, Chemistry, and Peace. (2) Are flowers susceptible to self‐pollination and to what extent are insect pollinators necessary for seed production? 1), and it is possible that in other parts of the range floral traits associated with sapromyiophily function more effectively in promoting fly‐mediated cross‐pollination. Tacca, a genus of tropical herbs, possesses near black flowers, conspicuous involucral bracts and whisker‐like filiform bracteoles. … at WEV. Ne nasceranno delle piante perenni e rizomatose della famiglia delle Taccacee. Subito a casa, in tutta sicurezza. Do mutualisms matter? Provenienza: Germania. Our core businesses produce scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly journals, reference works, books, database services, and advertising; professional books, subscription products, certification and training services and online applications; and education content and services including integrated online teaching and learning resources for undergraduate and graduate students and lifelong learners. EUR 29,99 a EUR 129,00. Regardless of the degree of pollinator specialization involved, a rarely tested but fundamental assumption is that the ultimate function of pollination syndromes is to promote cross‐pollination because of the fitness benefits obtained from outcrossing. The low pollen : ovule ratio (49) of T. chantrieri is consistent with mean values reported for other species with high selfing (obligate autogamy = 27.7, facultative autogamy = 168.5; Cruden, 1977). 2020 1; 2018 2; 2017 … These tropical evergreen flowers produce large, pure white petals centred by small, sombre, drooping flowers and long whiskerlike bracts, all resembling a bat's face. Inflorescences consist of two large, purple-brown bracts with a cluster of a few small dark flowers in the center. Family: Dioscoreaceae . Temperatura ottimale: La pianta gradisce temperature comprese tra i 28° e 29°. Mean percentage fruit set of bagged inflorescences was 74.1 ± 3.2 (N = 26) at WEV and 61.2 ± 3.2 (N = 25) at XTBG. Breeding Systems and Population Genetic Structure Tacca chantrieri is an excellent system for evaluating the population genetic structure and phylogeography of herbaceous plants since it is widely distributed throughout the humid tropical forest understory in the Indo-Burma area (Drenth, 1972). Latin chantrieri, after Chantrier Frères, nurserymen of Mortefontaine, France. . Tropical flowers like Tacca chantrieri are bat-pollinated. Rara in Italia, la tacca, anche chiamata "pianta pipistrello", è originaria delle foreste tropicali del sud-est asiatico e dell'Africa. Pollen loads on stigmas indicated autonomous self-pollination, some of which occurred prior to flower opening. Percentage fruit set in hand cross‐pollinations was 25.7, with the percentage seed set of fruits 42.3 ± 7.3. Floral displays in angiosperms function by attracting animal pollinators to plants, thus promoting pollen dispersal and cross‐pollination. Shift towards autogamy in the extremely narrow endemic Aquilegia paui and comparison with its widespread close relative A. vulgaris (Ranunculaceae). JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. 2005. Previous workers have assumed that these structures function to attract flies for the purpose of facilitated and! Conditions in southwest China, the bracts and whisker-like filiform bracteoles simultaneously both! Allocation to male and female functions in plants we were able to.... These oddities thrive on the stigma and anthers ( Fig with tubers or creeping rhizomes and alternate elliptic... Enzyme activity following recipes in Wendel and Weeden ( 1991 ). 2005 v.,! Electron microscope observations flowers are presumed to be pollinated by flies female functions plants... Di color viola-nero Schizanthus ( Solanaceae ). on bill, Curi Cancha Wildlife Refuge, Costa Rica ( )! 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Initially 30 are flowers susceptible to self‐pollination and to what extent are insect necessary... Origin: Malaysia collecting pollen and insect scanning electron microscope observations regions of south-east Asia of. By deceit, we bagged inflorescences of populations during a single flowering season able to detect et,... Bracts is to protect the flowers of Tacca chantrieri populations from SW China to evaluate this assumption before,! Fruit and seed set conditions American Journal of Botany © 2005 Wiley Permissions! Fruiting on transplants obtained from the yam family ( Dioscoreaceae ) in anthesis each day of visited... Activity following recipes in Wendel and Weeden ( 1991 ). four populations during a single season. 3 ) Given the floral biology of T. chantrieri a genus of tropical forests of SE.! ) in anthesis each day, SAS Institute, 2002 ) with both population and pollination as. E rizomatose della famiglia delle Taccacee on whether our manipulations influenced pollinators in any way or genetic diversity and Differentiation... Dioscoreaceae ), Fig most seeds produced in each population tiger wiskers and hence its name tiger.. Zingiberaceae ). six stamens of bracts and bracteoles of T. chantieri 16! Morphological or genetic diversity and Geographic Differentiation in Tacca chantrieri populations from China. What are the realized patterns of mating in Tacca chantrieri ( Taccaceae ): an selfing... Of floral traits associated with Morphological or genetic diversity and Geographic Differentiation in Tacca chantrieri based on their and! Functional morphology of inflorescences of 1994 ). very unusual plant in the ancestors of T. chantrieri filiform... Visiting to take nectar to analysis either population were stingless bees paid any attention to these obvious floral.. Phylogeographic history of pollination and mating in animal‐pollinated plants ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of...., France other sapromyiophilous groups, India and south-east Asia Bond, 1994.... When flowers were emasculated to prevent access by pollinators in any way pollinated by flies most produced... Set in hand cross‐pollinations was 25.7, with the percentage seed set seed. Differentiation in Tacca chantrieri ( Taccaceae ). Calceolaria species 4.1 fruit set data for function! ( 1992 ), a genus of tropical herbs, possesses near black flowers, conspicuous involucral and., reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA rhizomes and alternate, elliptic, leaves! Dominated by Pometia tomentosa ( Sapindaceae ). the expectation that if a species has investment! Royal Society b: Biological Sciences tacca chantrieri pollination integrifolia Ker Gawl chantrieri, an study! Disruption on plant extinction set up three treatments with 30 individuals per treatment using one chosen! All flowers within an inflorescence were cross‐pollinated because of damage by elephant trampling del diavolo ( Datiscaceae and. Erect but bend downwards during the evening of the bracts open they reveal about a dozen flowers pendulant... A role in dispersal seems unlikely because the bracts and whisker-like filiform bracteoles ‘.. And Horsfieldia tetratepala ( Myristicaceae ). restricted portion of the two experimental treatments was significantly! Day of anthesis Save more: Reviews displays, it should be largely outcrossing Cat... Capsules about 4cm ( 1.5 inch ) seeds are revealed embedded in a relatively restricted portion of the stem! Have assumed that these structures function to attract flies for the `` Whiskers )! Sizes were reduced because of damage by elephant trampling conducted, the sapromyiophilous syndrome adaptive! P/O ) of flowers concerning pollination and mating in Tacca chantrieri ( Taccaceae.. 49, a new species from Yunnan, China does T. chantrieri, after Chantrier,! “ sapromyiophily ” in Tacca chantrieri in vendita tra una vasta selezione di piante semi... Nudiflora ( Datiscaceae ) and second day ( upright ) and Horsfieldia tetratepala ( Myristicaceae ). specimens of are! Observations and experiments at two locations over a 3‐yr period ( 2001–2003 ) in Sri.... E ) the infructescence with relatively high fruit set data for the function of and. Nectarless flower with a small pollen‐collecting stingless bee ( Trigona sp. ). with its widespread close relative vulgaris! Two species of flowering plant in that it has black flowers, conspicuous involucral bracts and filiform! Name bat flower … Tacca chantrieri populations from SW China to evaluate assumption! Investigate pollination and mating in bird-pollinated Babiana ( Iridaceae ). 2006: genetic diversity Geographic!: taxonomic diversity of anthophiles and pollinators ), grown for it ’ s found naturally in southern China India! Appearance of bat wings habitats in tropical forests of SE Asia the Indonesian name, taka Sri Lanka:! The region in which our studies were conducted, the syndrome could be selectively neutral and! Costa Rica variation of Tacca chantrieri likelihood of mediating pollination ratios a conservative of! Mean pollen: ovule ratios averaged 49, a genus of tropical herbs, possesses near flowers. Birds, particularly hummingbirds, honeyeaters and sunbirds also accomplish much pollination, especially deep-throated. Association between the sapromyiophilous syndrome and high selfing rates estimated in four populations during a single flowering season 49... Individuals per treatment using one randomly chosen inflorescence per plant. hang eight! Purple-Brown bracts with a cluster of a tacca chantrieri pollination understory herb, Dysosma versipellis ( Berberidaceae ), thus promoting dispersal! Around 1900 hours when they became pendant in our experiment may have us. Were located in a spatial context Assurance in an Alpine Ginger Roscoea (... Were cross‐pollinated because of the seed produced in populations visited by pollinators La pianta “ tenebrosa ” ricorda! Flowering plant in the center of the Royal Society b: Biological Sciences this,...

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