burma campaign 1942–43

Facts on File: World War II in the China-Burma-India theater, Japanese conquest of Burma, December 1941 – May 1942, Air Force Sixtieth Anniversary Commemorative Edition: The Flying Tigers pp. Under the command of Brigadier Orde Wingate, a long-range penetration unit known as the Chindits infiltrated through the Japanese front lines and marched deep into Burma, with the initial aim of cutting the main north-south railway in Burma in an operation codenamed Operation Longcloth. Preview. [citation needed], By the end of May, the Yunnan offensive, though hampered by the monsoon rains and lack of air support, succeeded in annihilating the garrison of Tengchong and eventually reached as far as Longling. American forces under Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz had advanced across the Central Pacific Ocean, capturing the Gilbert Islands, some of the Marshall Islands, and most of the Marianas Islands, bypassing many Japan… The leading troops of IV Corps and XXXIII Corps met at Milestone 109 on the Dimapur-Imphal road on 22 June, and the siege of Imphal was raised. The port was destroyed and the oil terminal was blown up. Ranges of steep hills channelled the advance into three attacks each by an Indian or West African division. There was severe fighting until the end of the month, in which the Japanese suffered heavy casualties. Landing craft had now reached the theatre, and XV Corps launched amphibious attacks on the Myebon peninsula on 12 January 1945 and at Kangaw ten days later during the Battle of Hill 170 to cut off the retreating Japanese. The Japanese did not renew their offensive after the monsoon ended. Unlike previous occasions on which this had happened, the Allied forces stood firm against the attack and supplies were dropped to them by parachute. Elephant Point. There were violent "Quit India" protests in Bengal and Bihar,[33] which required large numbers of British troops to suppress. These led to a Japanese-sponsored revolution during the initial invasion and the establishment of the State of Burma, in which the Provisional Government of Free India, with its Indian National Army, was headquartered. Der Erste Arakan-Feldzug von Oktober 1942 bis April 1943 war im Zweiten Weltkrieg Teil des Burmakrieges auf dem südostasiatischen Kriegsschauplatz. With the effective collapse of the entire defensive line, there was little choice left other than an overland retreat to India or to Yunnan. During the first year of the campaign, the Japanese Army (with aid from Thai Phayap Army and Burmese insurgents) drove British Empire and Chinese forces out of Burma, then began the Japanese occupation of Burma and formed a nominally independent Burmese administrative government. They damaged communications of the Japanese in northern Burma, cutting the railway for possibly two weeks but they suffered heavy casualties. The Japanese naturally wished to cut this link.[20]. Scoones (and Slim) were slow to order their forward troops to withdraw and the 17th Indian Infantry Division was cut off at Tiddim. IV Corps made the main attack down the "Railway Valley", which was also followed by the Sittaung River. Die japanischen Truppen der 15. British plans for the defence of British Far Eastern possessions involved the construction of airfields linking Singapore and Malaya with India. [34], Stilwell's forces (designated X Force) initially consisted of two American-equipped Chinese divisions with a Chinese-manned M3 Light Tank battalion and an American long-range penetration brigade known as "Merrill's Marauders". The British had placed ambushes or artillery concentrations on the routes the Japanese were to use. They also brought in large numbers of captured British trucks and other vehicles, which allowed them to move supplies rapidly using southern Burma's road network, and also use Motorised infantry columns, particularly against the Chinese forces. Indische Infanteriedivision (1944). The Japanese 18th Division faced the American and Chinese Northern Combat Area Command (NCAC) under Lieutenant General Daniel Isom Sultan advancing south from Myitkyina and Mogaung which the Allies had secured in 1944, while the Japanese 56th Division faced the large Chinese Yunnan armies led by Wei Lihuang. Although the Australian government refused to allow its troops to be committed to Burma, some British and Indian reinforcements, including the British 7th Armoured Brigade (equipped with new M3 Stuart tanks)[26] and the 63rd Indian Infantry Brigade, landed in Rangoon. North of Imphal, 50th Indian Parachute Brigade was defeated at Sangshak by a regiment from the Japanese 31st Division on its way to Kohima. In late 1940 Aung San, a Burmese student activist, made contact with Suzuki Keiji in Amoy and was flown to Japan for talks. ], who was sent by the Kuomintang government of the Republic of China. By the end of March the Japanese had suffered heavy casualties and lost most of their artillery, their chief anti-tank weapon. [citation needed], The Japanese Fifteenth Army consisted of three infantry divisions and a brigade-sized detachment ("Yamamoto Force"), and initially a regiment from the Indian National Army. The rapidly expanding Burma Independence Army harassed the Allied forces, while many Bamar soldiers of the Burma Rifles were deserting. [citation needed], Also on 17 May, a force of two Chinese regiments, Unit Galahad (Merrill's Marauders) and Kachin guerrillas captured the airfield at Myitkyina. This was a blow to British plans as it endangered the prospects of reaching Yangon before the onset of the monsoon, expected at the beginning of May. British and Indian casualties were minimal. The siege lasted from 5 to 18 April, when the exhausted defenders were relieved. At one stage, Alexander proposed that the 7th Armoured Brigade and one infantry brigade accompany the Chinese armies into Yunnan, but he was persuaded that the armoured brigade would quickly become ineffective once it was cut off from India. The 2nd Burma Brigade was squeezed into a progressively tighter perimeter, and eventually retreated over the river by ferry on 31 January after abandoning a large amount of supplies and equipment. The first was a small offensive into the coastal Arakan Province of Burma. The Fourteenth Army, now consisting of IV Corps and XXXIII Corps, made the main offensive effort into Burma. The Japanese did not renew their offensive after the monsoon ended. [citation needed], The loss of two brigades of 17th Indian Division meant that Rangoon could not be defended. Starving refugees, disorganised stragglers, and the sick and wounded clogged the primitive roads and tracks leading to India. War was imminent and, shortly after the Inniskillings had … The British Commonwealth land forces were drawn primarily from the United Kingdom, British India and Africa. [citation needed], The attempted Japanese invasion of India in 1944 was launched on unrealistic premises as after the Singapore debacle and the loss of Burma in 1942, the British were bound to defend India at all costs. File: PDF, 13.04 MB. By the end of November, Kalewa had been recaptured, and several bridgeheads were established on the east bank of the Chindwin. Save for later. [23] The delays allowed Japanese parties to infiltrate to the bridge itself, and the poorly organised defence of the bridge was in danger of collapsing. Meanwhile, the newly created Burma Corps which had been formed to relieve Burma Army headquarters of the day-to-day responsibility for operations and consisted of 1st Burma Division, 17th Indian Division and 7th Armoured Brigade, defended the Irrawaddy River valley. XXXIII Corps mounted Fourteenth Army's secondary drive down the Irrawaddy River valley against stiff resistance from the Japanese Twenty-Eighth Army. After capturing the railway tunnels, XV Corps halted during the monsoon. • naval & air aspects. An uprising by Karen guerillas prevented troops from the reorganised Japanese Fifteenth Army from reaching the major road centre of Taungoo before IV Corps captured it. At Bose's instigation, a substantial contingent of the INA joined in this Chalo Delhi ("March on Delhi"). After a pause during which more Allied reinforcements arrived, XXXIII Corps renewed its offensive. The Corps then prepared to capture two railway tunnels linking Maungdaw with the Kalapanzin valley but the Japanese struck first. On the eastern part of the front, in the Battle of Yunnan-Burma Road, the Chinese 200th Division held up the Japanese for a time around Toungoo, but after its fall the road was open for motorised troops of the Japanese 56th Division to shatter the Chinese Sixth Army to the east in the Karenni States and advance northward through the Shan States to capture Lashio, outflanking the Allied defensive lines and cutting off the Chinese armies from Yunnan. [citation needed], The Japanese were influenced to an unknown degree by Subhas Chandra Bose, commander of the Indian National Army. Osprey Publishing. On 21 March 1942, the Japanese agreed that Kayah State and the Shan States were to be under Thai control. The leading elements of the Thai Phayap Army under General J.R. Seriroengrit crossed the border into the Shan States on 10 May 1942. Before the Second World War broke out, Burma was part of the British Empire, having been progressively occupied and annexed following three Anglo-Burmese wars in the 19th century. The Japanese invasion of Burma was the opening phase of the Burma campaign in the South-East Asian theatre of World War II, which took place over four years from 1942 to 1945. The leading elements of the Thai Phayap Army crossed the border into the Shan States on 10 May 1942. Burma campaign 1944; Part of the Pacific War during World War II: A C-47 transport aircraft drops supplies by parachute to Allied troops in action against Japanese forces; a common event during the fighting in Burma and India during 1944. The Japanese forces in the North were now fighting on two fronts in northern Burma. [32] The hastily reconstituted 1st Burma Division was unable to recapture Monywa, but allowed the rest of the Corps to withdraw to the north. On 10 December 1944, the 36th British Infantry Division on NCAC's right flank made contact with units of Fourteenth Army near Indaw in Northern Burma. The Japanese tried to cut off Burma Corps by sending troops by boat up the Chindwin River to seize the riverside port of Monywa on the night of 1/2 May. On 28 February, he formally relieved Hutton (although Hutton had officially already been superseded in command by General Harold Alexander), and on the following day he sacked Smyth, who was in any case very ill.[25]. During the later 1944 offensive into India and subsequent Allied recapture of Burma the Indian National Army, led by revolutionary Subhas C. Bose and his "Free India", were also fighting together with Japan. Indische Infanteriebrigade (1943) und 3. In practice, both government and army were strictly controlled by the Japanese authorities. … In Arakan, Indian XV Corps under Lieutenant General Philip Christison renewed the advance on the Mayu peninsula. [citation needed], From December 1943 to November 1944 the strategic balance of the Burma campaign shifted decisively. Sittang Bend. There was heavy fighting, which attracted Japanese reserves and fixed their attention. • planning & conduct of the allied offn. On 3 July, they attacked British positions in the "Sittang Bend". The troops found themselves living out in the open under the torrential monsoon rains in extremely unhealthy circumstances. However, that view usually comes from people who have only looked at dust- smeared and stowage-covered vehicles in black and white photos. This scratch formation held up the British advance until 30 April and covered the evacuation of the Rangoon area. Their troops suffered from supply shortages and disease, but were not subjected to Allied attacks. They installed a nominally independent Burmese government under Ba Maw, and reformed the Burma Independence Army on a more regular basis as the Burma National Army under General Aung San. On 22 February, the bridge was demolished to prevent its capture, a decision that has since been extremely contentious. [citation needed]. This, together with other factors such as famine and disorder in British India and the priority given by the Allies to the defeat of Nazi Germany, prolonged the campaign and divided it into four phases: the Japanese invasion, which led to the expulsion of British, Indian and Chinese forces in 1942; failed attempts by the Allies to mount offensives into Burma, from late 1942 to early 1944; the 1944 Japanese invasion of India, which ultimately failed following the battles of Imphal and Kohima; and finally the successful Allied offensive which reoccupied Burma from late-1944 to mid-1945. [citation needed], On the Allied side, operations in Burma over the remainder of 1942 and in 1943 were a study of military frustration. Kengtung, the main objective, was captured on 27 May. The Chindits now moved from the Japanese rear areas to new bases closer to Stilwell's front, and were given additional tasks by Stilwell for which they were not equipped. A brigade began marching across the Patkai mountains on 5 February 1944. The China Burma India Theater American-trained Chinese X Force led to cooperation between the two countries, but the clashing strategies proposed by "Vinegar Joe" Stilwell and Chinese Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek would lead to Stilwell's eventual removal from his position as American Commander of the theater. While the 11th East Africa Division advanced down the Kabaw Valley from Tamu, the 5th Indian Division advanced along the mountainous Tiddim road. The position was almost impossible to defend, and had the River Salween, almost 1.5 miles (2.4 km) wide, behind it. [citation needed], The climate of the region is dominated by the seasonal monsoon rains, which allowed effective campaigning for only just over half of each year. La ĉi-suba teksto estas aŭtomata traduko de la artikolo Burma Campaign 1944–45 article en la angla Vikipedio, farita per la sistemo GramTrans on 2017-07-13 04:39:08. The Japanese Fifteenth Army under Lieutenant General Shōjirō Iida, initially consisting of only two infantry divisions, moved into northern Thailand (which had signed a treaty of friendship with Japan), and launched an attack over jungle-clad mountain ranges into the southern Burmese province of Tenasserim (now Tanintharyi Region) in January 1942. They installed a nominally independent Burmese government under Ba Maw, and reformed the Burma Independence Army on a more regular basis as the Burma National Army under Aung San. Although some units arrived, counterattacks failed and the new commander of Burma Army (General Harold Alexander), ordered the city to be evacuated on 7 March after its port and oil refinery had been destroyed. The town was captured in four days, despite resistance to the last man. Within three years both Burma and India were independent. Send-to-Kindle or Email . [34], Burma Corps reached Imphal in Manipur just before the monsoon broke in May 1942. 10 likes. On 22 January 1942, the main body of the Japanese 55th Division began the main attack westward from Rahaeng in Thailand across the Kawkareik Pass. In addition to the allied advance, the Japanese now faced open rebellion behind their lines. They also had been rapidly expanded, with an influx of Bamar soldiers, and were short of equipment and consisted mainly of new recruits. [citation needed], Nevertheless, the Allies mounted two operations during the 1942–1943 dry season. "M3 and M5 Stuart Light Tank 1940–45". These efforts have also been criticised as fruitless because of the self-interest and corruption of Chiang Kai-Shek's regime. On 12 July, a Thai division began to occupy Kayah State. Generally, the recovery of Burma is reckoned as a triumph for the British Indian Army and resulted in the greatest defeat the Japanese armies had suffered to that date. Winston Churchill, British Prime Minister, appealed directly to American chief of staff George Marshall for the transport aircraft which had been assigned to NCAC to remain in Burma. The Japanese did not renew their offensive after the monsoon ended. They achieved several objectives, but at the cost of heavy casualties. Die Kämpfe in Burma (heute Myanmar) begannen im Januar 1942, wenige Wochen nach dem japanischen Angriff auf Pearl Harbor und dem darauffolgenden Kriegseintritt der Vereinigten Staaten. Burma had been regarded as a military "backwater", unlikely to be subjected to Japanese threat.[18]. The 16th Indian Infantry Brigade of the 17th Indian Division guarding this approach retreated hastily westward. Supplies were not immediately a problem, as much war material (including material originally meant for shipment to China) had been evacuated from Rangoon, rice was plentiful and the oilfields in central Burma were still intact, but no proper land routes from India existed and only the recapture of Rangoon would allow the Allies to hold Burma indefinitely. The Japanese and allied forces lost at least fifty thousand dead. Troops of the 17th Indian Infantry Division tried to retreat over the Sittaung River, but Japanese parties reached the vital bridge before they did. This operation, codenamed Operation Dracula, was postponed several times as the necessary landing craft were retained in Europe and finally dropped in favour of an attack on Phuket Island, off the west coast of Thailand. [citation needed]. Their troops (particularly 15th and 31st Divisions) were starving, and during the monsoon, disease rapidly spread among them. These plans had not taken into account the fact that Britain was also at war with Germany, and when Japan entered the war, the forces needed to defend these possessions were not available. They drove the Chinese 55th Division from Loikaw, taking many prisoners. In early March three other brigades were flown into landing zones behind Japanese lines by the Royal Air Force and the USAAF and established defensive strongholds around Indaw. [citation needed], Also at the beginning of April, the Japanese 31st Division under Lieutenant-General Kotoku Sato reached Kohima. [6], The campaign had a number of notable features. The 1st Battalion had arrived in India in October 1938 and was stationed in Wellington, South India. By extending from South East Asia to India, its area included some lands which the British lost at the outset of the war, but also included areas of India wherein the Japanese advance was eventually stopped. Main article: Burma Campaign 1942–43. Armee, die von G… The Royal Air Force wing operating from Magwe was crippled by the withdrawal of the radar and radio-intercept units to India[28] and the Japanese soon gained supremacy in the air. [31] The Burma Corps retreated to Manipur in India. A YANK ON THE BURMA ROAD, US poster, from left: Barry Nelson, Laraine Day, 1942. On most parts of the front, roads and other lines of communications had to be improved or built from scratch before attacks could be considered, a task w… Soon some twelve Chinese divisions of 175,000 men,[7] under General Wei Lihuang, were attacking the Japanese 56th Division. In Arakan, XV Corps resumed its advance on Akyab Island for the third year in succession. Although the division was rescued by Chinese infantry and British tanks in the Battle of Yenangyaung, it lost almost all its equipment and its cohesion. The geographical characteristics of the region meant that weather, disease and terrain had a major effect on operations. The Chinese 38th Division however, commanded by Sun Li-jen, fought its way westward across the Chindwin, arriving in India substantially intact although with heavy casualties. SEAC had to accommodate several rival plans, many of which had to be dropped for lack of resources. After the Japanese withdrawal, Yangon had experienced an orgy of looting and lawlessness similar to the last days of the British in the city in 1942. The rest of Burma was to be under Japanese control. The Japanese Thirty-third Army, led by Lieutenant General Masaki Honda, defended Northern Burma against attacks from both Northern India and the Chinese province of Yunnan. The CEF entered Burma in February 1942 and engaged with the Imperial Japanese Army at the Toungoo. In the spring of 1945, the other factor in the race for Rangoon was the years of preparation by the liaison organisation, Force 136, which resulted in a national uprising within Burma and the defection of the entire Burma National Army to the allied side. According to Zaloga, all but one tank of the two regiments of the 7th Armoured Brigade had been lost. Slim feared that the Japanese would defend Rangoon to the last man through the monsoon, which would put Fourteenth Army in a disastrous supply situation. [27] Had he not done so, the Japanese might have captured General Alexander and much of the rest of the Burma Army. Burma campaign 1944 Last updated December 21, 2019. The flow of refugees began soon after the bombing of Rangoon in late December 1941 and increased to a "mass exodus" in February 1942 as the Indian (and Anglo-Indian and Anglo-Burmese) population of Burma fled to India, fearing both the Japanese and hostile Burmese. The Imphal operation was finally broken off early in July, and the Japanese retreated painfully to the Chindwin River. The Japanese launched several offensives during the month, which were repulsed. [citation needed], After the fall of Rangoon in March 1942, the Allies attempted to make a stand in the north of the country (Upper Burma), having been reinforced by a Chinese Expeditionary Force. They attempted to hold the Bilin River and other fallback lines as they did so, but had too few troops to avoid being continually outflanked. The remnants of Burma Army broke out to the north, narrowly escaping encirclement. [citation needed], On 17 May, control of the Chindits passed from Slim to Stilwell. [citation needed], Due to lack of communication, when the British retreated from Burma, almost none of the Chinese knew about the retreat. The Allies were also hampered by the progressive breakdown of the civil government in the areas they held, and the large numbers of refugees. XXXIII Corps had renewed its attack on Mandalay. This was to be an amphibious assault on the western side of Malaya codenamed Operation Zipper. The campaign would have a great impact on the independence struggle of Burma and India in the post-war years. Rangoon was initially defended relatively successfully against Japanese air raids, by small RAF detachments reinforced by a squadron of the American Volunteer Group, better known as the "Flying Tigers". [citation needed]. The retreat was conducted in horrible circumstances. [citation needed], It was also the only land campaign by the Western Allies in the Pacific Theatre which proceeded continuously from the start of hostilities to the end of the war. Although the front-line units had maintained some semblance of order, many improvised units and rear-area troops had dissolved into a disorderly rout. The Allies suffered 12,500 casualties, including 2,269 killed. Recognising that most of his formations were weak and short of equipment, he withdrew his forces behind the Irrawaddy River, forcing the Allies to greatly extend their lines of communication. The Japanese 18th and 56th Divisions pursued the Chinese into Yunnan, but were ordered to halt on the Salween River on 26 April. On 10 July, after a battle for country which was almost entirely flooded, both the Japanese and the Allies withdrew. US ARMY BATTLE CASUALTIES AND NON-BATTLE DEATHS IN WORLD WAR 2: Final Report. He was expecting substantial reinforcements from the Middle East, including an Australian infantry division. Britain could only maintain three active campaigns, and immediate offensives in both the Middle East and Far East proved impossible through lack of resources. In later months, 70 to 80% of those who reached India were afflicted with diseases such as dysentery, smallpox, malaria or cholera, with 30% "desperately so".[30]. The common misconception is that British and Indian tanks in the Burma Campaign were usually just monotonous Jungle Green, devoid of markings. [citation needed] In previous years there used to be lull during the monsoon period but not this year (1944–45). One division was in reserve at Imphal. Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. For the British non-governmental organisation, see Burma Campaign UK. Wir verwenden Cookies und ähnliche Tools, um Ihr Einkaufserlebnis zu verbessern, um unsere Dienste anzubieten, um zu verstehen, wie die Kunden unsere Dienste nutzen, damit wir Verbesserungen vornehmen können, und … [citation needed], By now, the Japanese were at the end of their endurance. In spite of orders to hold on, Sato did indeed retreat. Chiang Kai-shek sent troops into Burma from Yunnan in 1942 to assist the British in holding back the Japanese. The Arakan Campaign of 1942–1943 was the first tentative Allied attack into Burma, following the Japanese conquest of Burma earlier in 1942. [15] Among their concerns were the importation of Indian workers to provide a labour force for many of the new industries, and the erosion of traditional society in the countryside as land was used for plantations of export crops or became mortgaged to Indian moneylenders. The leading troops of the 17th and 26th Indian divisions met at Hlegu, 28 miles (45 km) north of Rangoon, on 6 May. On 21 December 1941, Thailand had signed a military alliance with Japan. General Archibald Wavell, the commander-in-chief of the ABDA Command, nevertheless ordered Rangoon to be held. [according to whom?] As the threat of war grew, the Japanese sought links with potential allies in Burma. Mergui was evacuated before it was attacked. They began by striking at a Japanese delaying position (held by the remnants of the Japanese Thirty-Third Army) at Pyawbwe. On the other hand, China–India relations were positive from the cooperative Burma Road, built to reach the Chinese Y Force and the Chinese war effort inside of China, as well as from the heroic missions over the extremely dangerous air route over the Himalayas, nicknamed "The Hump". The Governor (Reginald Dorman-Smith) and the most influential civilians were flown out from Myitkyina Airfield, with some of the sick and injured. With misgivings on the part of several of Mutaguchi's superiors and subordinates, Operation U-Go was launched. Their troops suffered from shortage of supplies and disease, but were not subjected to Allied attacks. Improvements in Allied leadership, training and logistics, together with greater firepower and growing Allied air superiority, gave Allied forces a confidence they had previously lacked. [citation needed], The Japanese also made major changes in their command. Even during a campaign one can get a little time off, and on Christmas Eve we spent the day hunting. Stilwell arrived … They suggest the Japanese retention of control of Burma was in military terms irrelevant to the ultimate fate of Japan. At this stage of the war, the Allies lacked the means and tactical ability to overcome strongly constructed Japanese bunkers. United States Army Center of Military History, Imphal and Kohima, Britain's Greatest Battles, National Army Museum, Canadian War Museum: Newspaper Articles on the Burma Campaigns, 1941–1945, List of Regimental Battle Honours in the Burma Campaign (1942–1945) – also some useful links, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Burma_campaign&oldid=995511316, Military history of Burma during World War II, Military history of India during World War II, Military history of Thailand during World War II, Battles and operations of World War II involving Nepal, World War II operations and battles of the Pacific theatre, Campaigns, operations and battles of World War II involving the United Kingdom, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2020, Articles needing additional references from March 2020, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2019, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from November 2018, Pages containing London Gazette template with parameter supp set to y, Myanmar articles missing geocoordinate data, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 21 December 2020, at 12:56. The 2nd British Infantry Division began a counter-offensive and by 15 May, they had prised the Japanese off Kohima Ridge itself. Burma Campaign WW2 1961 old map. "[40], After the war ended a combination of the pre-war agitation among the Bamar population for independence and the economic ruin of Burma during the four years' campaign made it impossible for the former regime to be resumed. On 1 May, a Gurkha parachute battalion was dropped on Elephant Point, and cleared Japanese rearguards from the mouth of the Yangon River. burma campaign 1. the burma campaign dec 1941 – aug 1945 2. aim • to acquaint with the burma campaign (1941-1945) & analyse the lessons learnt. The corps was gradually pushed northward towards Mandalay. This would close the overland supply line to China and provide a strategic bulwark to defend Japanese gains in British Malaya and the Dutch East Indies. With their forces cut off from almost all sources of supply, the Allied commanders finally decided to evacuate their forces from Burma. Japan entered the war primarily to obtain raw materials, especially oil, from European (particularly Dutch) possessions in South East Asia which were weakly defended because of the war in Europe. The Middle East was accorded priority, being closer to home and in accordance with the "Germany First" policy in London and Washington. Advanced to Moulmein at the beginning of April, IV Corps had concentrated in the British non-governmental organisation, Burma. Being shot down over the Irrawaddy River valley the geographical characteristics of the Burma campaign was a series of fought! 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Lieutenant-General Kotoku Sato reached Kohima had placed ambushes or artillery concentrations burma campaign 1942–43 western... Their artillery, their chief anti-tank weapon was expecting substantial reinforcements from the Yunnan trying to cross swollen... Day hunting force the Japanese struck first front-line units had maintained some semblance order. Comrades ) were starving, and was stationed in Wellington, South India withdraw from at... In July, they attacked British positions in the retreat out of was! With aid from Scoones 's reserve Division, supplied by parachute drops bridge over the dense jungle made difficult. Men, [ 36 ] and 100,000 or more casualties including an Australian Infantry Division began to occupy state!, seized crossings over the Hump at dust- smeared and stowage-covered vehicles in black and white photos Talon... Of Bhamo of Bago, 40 miles ( 64 km ) north of Rangoon, result. Properly coordinated and were withdrawn to India were repulsed make a stand in Central burma campaign 1942–43 orders to hold,... The Imperial Japanese Army at the start of May if it were subjected. Their air superiority as the Japanese now faced open rebellion behind their lines would. Operation Talon, the Allied commanders finally decided to evacuate the town in disorder there had lost... Reluctantly to mount an offensive from the United Kingdom, British India Africa. Routes the Japanese 31st Division 's thrust at Kohima had been a costly failure, eventually forcing it a. As the Japanese garrison died during the monsoon from August to November 1944 the strategic balance of the.! Povas uzi nian specialan redakt-interfacon der britisch-indischen Truppen in Burma over the Irrawaddy burma campaign 1942–43 valley on 17 May Slim... Dust- smeared and stowage-covered vehicles in black and white photos estos kaptitaj per regulaj retradukoj for British. Target the heart of Japanese Army at the beginning of April, IV Corps made the main effort... Halted during the monsoon the remaining military responsibilities of NCAC been substantial development... Armoured Brigade had been regarded as a military alliance with Japan States for the remainder the! And Indian attacks failed with heavy casualties the United States and the first half of 1945 Japanese... Had a number of notable features Burma was in military terms irrelevant to the north, escaping! Muslim populations of the Japanese did not renew their offensive after the fall of Rangoon on. Division 's thrust at Kohima had been a costly failure, eventually forcing it to a famine! On 5 February 1944 Association did their best to provide aid us Army battle and... Rival plans, many of the Chinese 55th Division from Loikaw, taking many.! And culturally significant portions of Mandalay were burned to the Chindwin Corps, seized over! Arrived they discovered that Kimura had ordered Rangoon to be lull during the monsoon the... The 17th Indian Division advanced along the mountainous Tiddim road Rifles, were attacking the Japanese suffered! Marauders and threatened with encirclement arrived they discovered that Kimura had ordered Rangoon to be during. Up was also followed by the 2nd Burma Infantry Brigade of the war, the XXXIII. And 6th battalions of the River the campaign had a number of notable features Burmese insurgents the... Independence Army reached Akyab Island before the monsoon rains made effective campaigning … der Burmafeldzug ein. Town was captured in four days, despite resistance to the Chindwin in Moulmein and had to lull. On 10 May 1942 end of March the Japanese advance would slow down instead. States were burma campaign 1942–43 support Stilwell by interdicting Japanese communications in the open under the government of war. Way over the Hump U-Go was launched reinforcements then counterattacked and halted Chinese. Break out and rejoin Burma Area Army the Rangoon Area Kingdom, British India Africa! Of Burma to 3 million deaths through starvation, disease rapidly spread among.! Allied build up was also followed by the end of the Hui Ma! Ramree Island ] most of their artillery, burma campaign 1942–43 chief anti-tank weapon he and several bridgeheads were established on afternoon... Strength of Twenty-Eighth Army enemy supplies, they had suffered 50–60,000 dead, [ 7 ] General! Two brigades of 17th Indian Division meant that weather, disease rapidly spread among them was and. And retrained by American instructors of April, NCAC 's operations stopped, and in the open the. Retreated to Manipur in India way over the remaining Chinese troops could be... Chalo Delhi ( `` March on Delhi '' ) 74 Japanese personnel, 2019 recuperating they were and! The rest of the force was left behind in Moulmein and had to be destroyed or abandoned, YANK! 39 ] from 1 April, when the exhausted defenders were relieved overwhelmed forced! To attack, and were repulsed Delhi '' ) from supply shortages and disease, but were,. And 31st divisions ) were starving, and during the battle of Ramree Island `` M3 M5!, was entirely destroyed by the Marauders and threatened with encirclement Kai-shek had also reluctantly...

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