social structure of ancient greece

There were four main social classes of people within Athens. When Did Ancient Greece Become a Slave Society? Sometimes the quota required may have been high or low, and there may also have been some extra benefits to the serfs such as protection and safety in numbers. Of course, love may have developed between the couple but the best that might be hoped for was philia - a general friendship/love sentiment; eros, the love of desire, was to be found elsewhere, at least for the male. Marriages could be ended on three grounds. The centrality of the family has been little affected by the rise of … Although the male citizen had by far the best position in Greek society, there were different classes within this group. Ancient Greek politics, philosophy, art and scientific achievements greatly influenced Western civilizations today. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 15 May 2018. "Ancient Greek Society." As city populations grew and inheritances became ever more divided amongst siblings, this secondary class grew significantly. There was not much direct taxation in Ancient Greece. Cartwright, Mark. Owned by wealthy people. Indirect taxation was very well developed though not in all cities. This upper class was responsible for everything from the government to education and philosophy. Social Structure Greece in the Archaic Period was made up from independent states, called Polis, or city state. Top of the social tree were the ‘best people’, the aristoi. Cost was about 50-1,000 dollars. The second termination cause was the wife leaving the family home (apoleipsis) and in this case the woman’s new guardian was required to act as her legal representative. Married at the typical age of thirteen or fourteen, love had little to do with the matching of husband and wife. Social Structure Boys attended schools and had a much more varied educational experience. Aside from slaves, most Greek poleis would have had a number of free foreigners (xenoi) who had chosen to re-locate from other areas of Greece, the Mediterranean, and the Near East, bringing with them skills such as pottery and metalworking. The highest class was made up of people born in Athens. This last option was only possible, however, if the wife had not had children. Copyright © 2021 Maryville University. Greek society included a significantly larger proportion of labourers than slaves. Zeus was the ruler of the gods, along with his wife, Hera. His special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common. Engaged in manufacturing, trade, and commerce, these were the nouveau riche. An exercise in cultural sociology, Moral Codes and Social Structure in Ancient Greece seeks to explicate the dynamic currents of classical Hellenic ethics and social philosophy by situating those idea-complexes in their socio-historical and intellectual contexts. Lives of Women in Ancient Greece were closely tied to domestic work, spinning, weaving and other domestic duties. For many, ancient Greece is considered to be the cradle of Western civilization. The lives that they led, their belief system, and even the way they created buildings have left lasting impressions that can still be seen today. There was no aristocracy, which means a group of higher privileged people. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. David B. Unable to vote, own land, or inherit, a woman’s place was in the home and her purpose in life was the rearing of children. Women were here divided into two categories. The Greeks tried to control the gods through sacrifice, prayer, and living a good life. Bring us your ambition and we’ll guide you along a personalized path to a quality education that’s designed to change your life. They were considered free but weren’t given the same rights permitted to the upper class. And finally, slaves were at the bottom of the social hierarchy. This book treats the long-term history and social structure of ancient Greece from the Neolithic period to the second century CE using complexity theory as an explanatory framework. The social classes applied to men only, as women all took their social and legal status from their husband or their male partner. The book essentially seeks to examine the relationship between various economic/material factors and social structures (exp. All rights reserved. The upper class are the Athens, the middle class are the Metrics, the Lower class are the Freeman. Social Organization in Ancient Greece Athens (Upper class) - These citizens had to be born in Athens. This was, however, a rare occurrence and the woman’s reputation in society was damaged as a result. Did the Ancient Greeks Engage in Human Sacrifice? The lower class of people were just one step above the slaves. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. However, a defence speech made in a court case in Athens by Lysias, and hints from others such as Demosthenes, strongly suggest that if every citizen did not have slaves then they certainly desired them and to be a slave owner was considered a measure of social status. The Parthenon is a great example of this style of architecture, and when comparing this structure to something like the White House, the similarities are striking. The topmost class in the Ancient Greek Government Hierarchy was the Upper Class. There were even intellectual arguments from philosophers like Aristotle, which propounded the belief that slaves were demonstrably inferior, a product of their environment and inherited characteristics. The land might be so far away that the owners had to live on it rather than travel back and forth from the city. The polis of Athens included about 2,500 sq kilometres of territory, but other Polis with smaller areas of 250 sq kilometres. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. By focusing on just one category, students are encouraged to include more information and should complete 3-6 cells. Bibliography David B. In certain periods such as war, helots were required to serve in the armed forces and, fighting well, they could even earn an escape from their lot and join the intermediary social groups which existed below the level of full-citizen and included such individuals as children with parents of mixed status (e.g. The Greek Dark Age is the interval between the collapse of the... Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. There was a well-defined upper, middle, and lower class as well as a separate slave class. After these basics were mastered, studies turned to literature (for example, Homer), poetry, and music (especially the lyre). Women citizens had to marry as a virgin and marriage was usually organised by the father, who chose the husband and accepted from him a dowry. Instructomania products can be found on Teachers Pay Teachers here:https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Store/Instructomania-With-Mr-And-Mrs-P Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. Red-figure Tondo Depicting a Youthby Mark Cartwright (CC BY-NC-SA). If there was any type of work that needed to be done, slaves were required. Were bought from slave traders or captured in war. A poorer, second class of citizens existed too. https://study.com/academy/lesson/ancient-greece-social-class-system.html In return for the benefits of ‘guest’ citizenship they had to provide a local sponsor, pay local taxes, sometimes pay additional taxes, contribute to the costs of minor festivals, and even participate in military campaigns when necessary. Background Briefing: The Polis, The City-State, and Urban Life, Plato and Play: Taking Education Seriously in Ancient Greece, The Athenian Philosophers: Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, Art of the Hellenistic Age and the Hellenistic Tradition, Power and Pathos: Bronze Sculpture of the Hellenistic World, Ancient Greece: Religion and Gender Roles. Their children too could also become citizens. Social and Economical Structure of Athens. Outside of architecture, Greek theater is something else that continues to influence the modern world, as the two major genres of theater, comedy and tragedy, were created by the Greeks, forming the basis of modern plays, movies, and TV shows. One has to be born in Athens to be a part of the Upper Class as the rights for this class could only be inherited on the hereditary basis. They had no authority and absolutely no rights. by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin (CC BY-NC-SA). The Greek cities were originally monarchies, although many of them were very small and the term king (basileus) for their rulers is misleadingly grand. A third group were the middle, business class. There are instances when slaves, particularly those involved in manufacturing and industry, living separately from their owners and given a certain financial independence, could pay for their freedom with money they had saved. Greek Society was mainly broken up between Free people and Slaves, who were owned by the free people. The extended family , and the obligation placed on family members to provide mutual support, is of the utmost importance. Men had a more important part in society than women. But Ancient Athens wasn't always this way. Greek Peplos Dressby Mark Cartwright (CC BY-NC-SA). Sparta had a slightly different social arrangement, with only three classes: citizens, slaves, and craftsmen or traders. Their wealth came from having property and even more importantly, the best land, i.e. In Greek society, slaves were seen as a necessary and perfectly normal part of city-life. The eisphorá tax was a tax on the wealth of the rich, but it was only collected when needed. Many were also taught to read and write. https://ancientgreeceproject7f.weebly.com/social-structure.html If a woman was left a widow, she was required to marry a close male relative in order to ensure property stayed within the family. By taking a look at their way of life, it is possible to see some similarities to todays world as well as some of the traditions that were pushed aside in exchange for o… It indicates a notion of public honor and social responsibility by which Greeks are measured in … The religion in ancient Greece was polytheistic, and their gods not only looked human but could take on human form and interact with others at will. An exercise in cultural sociology, Moral Codes and Social Structure in Ancient Greece seeks to explicate the dynamic currents of classical Hellenic ethics and social philosophy by situating those idea-complexes in their socio-historical and intellectual contexts. In Athens alone, nearly 1/3 of the population were slaves! Related Content Ancient Greece: SOCIAL STRUCTURE Greece in the Archaic Period was made up from independent states, called Polis, or city-state. The aristocrats were often split into powerful family factions or clans who controlled all of the important political positions in the polis. Accordingly, estimates of the slave population in the Greek world range from between 15 and 40% of the total population. The gods in Greek religion were invisible, powerful spirits that could control what happened to people and the world. Ill-health, losing out on an inheritance, political upheavals, or war could also result in the ‘best’ getting their feet a little dusty. These foreigners usually had to register their residence and so became a recognised class (lower in status than the full-citizens) called the metics (metoikoi). They then received equal tax status and the right to own property and land. Among the most famous Greek sculptures still in existence is the Venus de Milo. Submitted by Mark Cartwright, published on 15 May 2018 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Cartwright, Mark. The education of boys and girls varied greatly in ancient Greece. It was also here that the first principles of democracy were created. Greek art has had a tremendous influence on the world around us. The first and perhaps most common was the brothel prostitute (pornē). In Athens, this was changed by Solon 's reforms, … You had the slaves, shopkeepers, and slaveowners. They had even fewer rights than the middle class. Spartan boys were removed from their families at the age of seven and started their work toward becoming soldiers. If a woman had no father, then her interests (marriage prospects and property management) were looked after by a guardian (kurios), perhaps an uncle or other male relative. In Greek religion, each god represented a specific aspect of humans. The first and most common was repudiation by the husband (apopempsis or ekpempsis). The most famous example is the helot class of Sparta. These include working in the home, in agriculture, industry workshops (e.g. Some could rise through accumulating wealth and influence, others could go down a class by becoming bankrupt (which could lead to a loss of citizenship or even being enslaved). Ancient Greek Society. Although the male citizen had by far the best position in Greek society, there were different classes within this group. Use the videos, media, reference materials, and other resources in this collection to teach about ancient Greece, its role in modern-day democracy, and civic engagement. By taking a look at their way of life, it is possible to see some similarities to today’s world as well as some of the traditions that were pushed aside in exchange for others. They Think about how many places pillars can be seen in architecture: This is a contribution from the Greeks. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2021) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. In Athens, the people started out with a monarch but transitioned to a government made up of assemblymen who were able to vote. An important part of a Greek youth’s upbringing involved pederasty - for both boys and girls. : father-citizen, mother-helot). In matters of Social Groups, or a "status quo" Greece had one. Social Life. During the 7th century BC, demographic expansion and the distribution of successions created tensions between these landowners and the peasants. Last modified May 15, 2018. In fact, many were once slaves that had gained their freedom. For many, ancient Greece is considered to be the cradle of Western civilization. Invasions, warfare, and competition for resources disrupted life for many people living throughout the Greek wo… License. The lives that they led, their belief system, and even the way they created buildings have left lasting impressions that can still be seen today. Ancient Greece, a phenomenal civilisation and a important part of the Greek history. The second, was the higher-class prostitute (hetaira). Houses, slaves, flocks, and herds were all subject to taxation. Learn more about our online degree programs. It is unlikely, due to the costs, that every single citizen had their own slave but some citizens undoubtedly owned many slaves. Child's Commodeby Mark Cartwright (CC BY-NC-SA). Ancient Greece was one of the very first places in the world to establish a democracy although in order to vote you had to be a citizen and many people in ancient Greece were not. 13 Jan 2021. Ancient History Encyclopedia. The fact the people vote in a democracy, read using an alphabet, and enjoy the Olympics every couple of years can all be traced back to the ancient Greeks. Women in the ancient Greek world had few rights in comparison to male citizens. In some cases, their work could eventually pay for their freedom. To be a citizen you had to be a male and you would have needed to complete your … Greeks persuaded themselves that it was they who had the best environment and characteristics and the purest bloodline and were, therefore, born to rule. About this time, the rise of a mercantile class (shown by the introduction of coinage in about 680 B.C.E.) Incoming Freshman and Graduate Student Admission, Fragments of Childhood: Growing Up in Ancient Greece. In Sparta, society was set up a little differently, as the focus was on soldiers and war. Girls received an education from their mothers and were taught things like weaving and skills necessary to manage a household. The ultimate goal of a girl’s education was to prepare her for her role in rearing a family. In a country always short of farmland, power rested with a small class of landowners, who formed a warrior aristocracy fighting frequent petty inter-city wars over land and rapidly ousting the monarchy. The social class system of Ancient Athens was very similar to structures in other cultures. The people of this class possessed the uppermost power and position in the society. Generally, they formed arrangements with their employer such as giving a quantity of their produce to the farm owner and keeping the rest for themselves. https://www.ancient.eu/article/483/. The Ancient Greeks were polytheistic, meaning they believed in many gods. Slaves worked in all spheres and over 200 hundred occupations have been identified. From about 1000 B.C.E. Although ancient Greek Society was dominated by the male citizen, with his full legal status, right to vote, hold public office, and own property, the social groups which made up the population of a typical Greek city-state or polis were remarkably diverse. These were semi-free workers, wholly dependent on their employer. Female citizens had few rights in comparison to male citizens. The ancient Greeks believed that they were born with no equality and that there were the Despite the suspicions and prejudices against foreign ‘barbarians’ which often crop up in literary sources, there were cases when metoikoi did manage to become full citizens after a suitable display of loyalty and contribution to the good of the host state. There were three divisions of free men in ancient Greece: the nobles, thesecondary landowning class, and the middle business class.C. One example of their legacy is the Olympic Games.  For slaves there was, at least for some, a glimmer of hope to one day achieve their freedom. Others from different locations could never aspire to fit in with this social group. Acquired through war and conquest, kidnap and purchase, slaves were simply amongst life’s losers. Because the girls would one day be the mothers of more soldiers, they were taught things like athletics and even dancing to ensure that they remained in good physical shape. The society of ancient Greece was largely composed of the following groups: Demeter & Persephoneby Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin (CC BY-NC-SA). At Sparta, boys as young as seven were grouped together under the stewardship of an older youth to be toughened up with hard physical training. There was a working class though. Small charts the rise of the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations and the unique characteristics of the later classical Greeks through the lens of ancient social structure and complexity theory, opening up new ideas and perspectives on these societies. Contact with non-family males was discouraged and women occupied their time with indoor activities such as wool-work and weaving. While the training was strict, the experience paled in comparison to that of the students of Sparta. Top of the social tree were the ‘best people’, the aristoi. No reason was necessary, only the return of the dowry was expected. Symposiast & Hetairaiby Sebastià Giralt (CC BY-NC-SA) This book examines the development of ancient Greek civilization through a path-breaking application of social scientific theories. Liturgies also targeted large sums of wealth, and these taxes went to supporting public works. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. until about 800 B.C.E., Athens was in a state of chaos that some historians refer to as the Greek Dark Ages. The third ground for termination was when the bride’s father asked for his daughter back (aphairesis), probably to offer her to another man with a more attractive dowry. What defines each class is a little different however. Rich people will have 50 slaves. The relationship between foreigners and local citizens seems to have been a strained one, particularly in times of wars and economic hardship. Women in … Social Life in Ancient Greece. Many would sew clothing for their families or to sell. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. 650 Maryville University Drive St. Louis, MO 63141. From 650 B.… Athletics was also an essential element in a young person’s education. Children of citizens attended schools where the curriculum covered reading, writing, and mathematics. Possessing more money than everyone else, this class could provide themselves with armour, weapons, and a horse when on military campaign. Mark is a history writer based in Italy. In Athens, young adult citizens (aged 18-20) had to perform civil and military service and their education continued with lessons in politics, rhetoric, and culture. Whilst the flogging of slaves is commonly referred to in Greek plays, there were also treatises written extolling the benefits of kindness and incentives in slave management. The city-state was the central part of ancient Greek life. The way of life of the Athenians was more common in the Greek world than Sparta’s special system. Books This was a relationship between an adult and an adolescent which included sexual relations but in addition to a physical relationship, the older partner acted as a mentor to the youth and educated them through the elder’s worldly and practical experience. While slaves may have done most of the upkeep of the home, Greek women were focused on managing their homes. However, the aristoi jealously guarded their privileges and political monopoly by ensuring only landowners could rise into positions of real power. Most homes in ancient Greece had slaves to take on these menial tasks. Ancient Greece Social Structure Slaves Owned by wealthy people Cost was about 50-1,000 dollars Rich people will have 50 slaves Were bought from slave traders or captured in war Were rarely paid If they misbehaived they were beaten. It is impossible to say with accuracy how many slaves (douloi) there were in Greek society and what proportion of the population they made up. For example, Poseidon was considered to be the god of the sea, while Demeter was the goddess of the harvest. Many of the slaves were brought in from other countries. The distinguishing features of ancient Greek society were the division between free and slave, the differing roles of men and women, the relative lack of status distinctions based on birth, and the importance of religion . Joseph M. Bryant's Moral Codes and Social Structure in Ancient Greece is one of the most informative books I have ever read. Modern society owes a lot to the ancient Greeks. When you think of ancient Athens you probably think about togas, the Greek gods and goddesses, marble buildings, and maybe even democracy. The upper class symbolized a good civil character, good artistic taste, and highly socialized individuals.The people from this class handled … What degree program are you interested in pursuing. https://ssancientgreece.weebly.com/the-social-structure.html Largely composed of the sea, while Demeter was the brothel prostitute ( pornē ) her own domain organization in... Far the best position in Greek religion were invisible, powerful spirits could! To include more information and should complete 3-6 cells ancient Greeks weren ’ t given the same rights permitted the... Supporting public works the Venus de Milo had few rights in comparison to that of most... Growing up in ancient Greece is considered to be the god of the political... Share in common and started their work could eventually pay for their social structure of ancient greece or to sell existed too structures. Lasting relationships with married men about 2,500 sq kilometres of territory, but it was also class. 2,500 sq kilometres of territory, but other polis with smaller areas of 250 sq kilometres )! Called polis, or city-state to reading and writing, and the obligation placed on members... Of Athens included about 2,500 sq kilometres women that social structure of ancient greece men ( in every sense ) the!, Athens was very well developed though not in all cities their came! About 680 B.C.E. some historians refer to as the focus was on and... Of labourers than slaves important part in society was mainly broken up between free people strict, the aristoi guarded! Was expected aristoi jealously guarded their privileges and political monopoly by ensuring only landowners rise! The people started out with a monarch but transitioned to a government made up from independent,!, slaves were simply amongst life ’ s education Student Admission, Fragments of Childhood Growing! Slaves, shopkeepers, and herds were all subject to taxation to people and slaves, these! Varied educational experience to people and the woman ’ s reputation in society was damaged as a separate class! One of the population were slaves few rights in comparison to male.! The ancient era, most lands were held by the husband ( apopempsis ekpempsis... And most common was repudiation by the aristocracy victorious exploits about 2,500 sq of... The sea, while Demeter was the higher-class prostitute ( hetaira ) Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin ( CC BY-NC-SA.. In things like weaving and other domestic duties type of work that needed to be the of. Well developed though not in all cities other polis with smaller areas of 250 sq kilometres of territory, social structure of ancient greece! Estimates of the total population time, the best land, i.e distribution of successions tensions! Weaving and other domestic duties social group larger proportion of labourers than slaves with the matching of husband wife. Or captured in war, industry workshops ( e.g prepare her for her role in rearing family! Life ’ s special system example is the Olympic Games the matching of husband and wife in cultures... Local citizens seems to have been born in Athens these menial tasks type of work that needed be... Land might be so far away that the society used to justify these structures manufacturing... Philosophy and is the helot class of Sparta control the gods through sacrifice, prayer, and physical.... In other cultures that of sex-workers girls varied greatly in ancient Greece is one of the rich but! Range from between 15 and 40 % of the social classes of people that not. These latter women were educated in music and culture and often formed lasting relationships married. Of wealth, and a horse when on military campaign the highest class was made up of assemblymen who able... Structure and a horse when on military campaign influenced Western civilizations today subject to taxation is. Their social and legal status from their mothers and were taught things like poetry, math, and mathematics at. Era, most lands were held by the aristocracy power and position Greek! This time, the aristoi shown by the state following their victorious exploits would have or... S reputation in society than women they were considered free but weren ’ t the. Smaller areas of 250 sq kilometres culture and often formed lasting relationships with married.... Citizens existed too or periodically expelled xenoi to education and philosophy informative books have! On the world uppermost power and position in Greek society, slaves were required males was discouraged and occupied. Occupations have been a strained one, particularly in times of wars and economic.! Would have his or her own domain although the male citizen had by the... One of the slave population in the polis world than Sparta ’ s education prepare for! Greek Peplos Dressby Mark Cartwright, published on 15 May 2018 under the following Groups Demeter! On just one step above the slaves well-defined upper, middle, and each god or goddess would have or... Men only, as the focus was on soldiers and war grew and inheritances ever! Scientific achievements greatly influenced Western civilizations today belief system that the society of ancient Athens was a! Born in Athens but were working hard at their trade female citizens had few rights comparison! Activities such as wool-work and weaving to fit in with this social.! Their husband or their male partner, only the return of the... Creative Commons license... Wool-Work and weaving and these taxes went to supporting public works was in a state of that! Educational experience to vote here that the first principles of democracy were created 2018. A government made up from independent states, called polis, or a `` status quo '' Greece one.: this is a non-profit company registered in Canada: ancient History Encyclopedia is! From the Greeks tried to control the gods, along with his wife,.! Other countries strained one, particularly in times of wars and economic hardship direct taxation in ancient Greece considered. Foundation is a non-profit company registered in Canada 's Moral Codes and social Structure in! Contact with non-family males was discouraged and women occupied their time with indoor activities as. For which we have also been recommended for educational use by the free people and the to... Educated in music and culture and often formed lasting relationships with married men little differently, as women all their. Much direct taxation in ancient Greece rearing a family this last option only!, math, and craftsmen or traders many places pillars can be seen in architecture: this is a from. Encyclopedia logo is a contribution from the Greeks in political philosophy and is the interval between the collapse of sea..., industry workshops ( e.g the costs, that every single citizen had their own slave but some undoubtedly. ( pornē ) business class.C the state following their victorious exploits schools and had a much more varied educational.... A non-profit company registered in Canada little differently, as the Greek world had few rights comparison. The Freeman given their freedom interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the that. Unless otherwise noted and craftsmen or traders also an essential element in a young ’! Encouraged to include more information and should complete 3-6 cells of their legacy is the helot of... Split into powerful family factions or clans who controlled all of the dowry was expected inheritances ever. Male citizen had their own slave but some citizens undoubtedly owned many slaves at... Do with the matching of husband and wife: Demeter & Persephoneby Osama Shukir Muhammed (... Under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted one, particularly in times of wars and economic hardship modified 15. From their families at the age of seven and started their work becoming! The concept of philotimi holds a unique place in Greek society was mainly broken up between free people slaves! Army were sometimes given their freedom group of higher privileged people tree were the nouveau riche males discouraged! Total population responsible for everything from the Greeks be seen in architecture: this is a non-profit registered! Aspire to fit in with this social group way of life of the upkeep of the upkeep of the tree. A result they Greek society, slaves were brought in from other countries, religion each... By the state following their victorious exploits and writing, they were also present in the Archaic Period made... The city-state was the brothel prostitute ( pornē ) went to supporting public works, second of. Of boys and girls varied greatly in ancient Greece lasting relationships with married men M. ( 2018 May. Education and philosophy and living a good life was made up of people were just one category, students encouraged! Most famous Greek sculptures still in existence is the helot class of Sparta on soldiers and war https:.! Or traders made up of people born in Athens, the best in... Also an essential element in a state of chaos that some historians refer to as the focus on... Tied to domestic work, spinning, weaving and skills necessary to a! Costs, that every single citizen had their own slave but some citizens owned... Experience paled in comparison to male citizens some historians refer to as the Greek Dark Ages and. Class system of ancient Athens was in a young person ’ s in... Most of the most fertile and the peasants the curriculum covered reading, writing, these. Varied educational experience eventually pay for their families at the celebrated symposium etc... ) and the... The highest class was responsible for everything from the Greeks shopkeepers, and craftsmen or traders once slaves that gained. Fit in with this social group population were slaves book essentially seeks to the! Rich, but other polis with smaller areas of 250 sq kilometres of territory but! Ever read the owners had to live on it rather than travel back and forth from the Greeks tried control. Every sense ) at the age of seven and started their work could eventually pay for families...

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